Completed by the Spirit Part 15: Producing Fruit, Not Inspecting Fruit

Ed Trefzger
Ed Trefzger
This is the 15th part of a series of posts adapted from a paper I pre­sented at a New Covenant The­ol­ogy think tank in upstate New York in July 2010.
While we have seen that the law is inef­fec­tual against sin, and (as Paul argues) that the law pro­motes sin in sin­ful flesh, and while we have just seen that it is love that ful­fills the two tables of the law, we then must ask, “What, accord­ing to Paul, pro­duces growth in holi­ness?” And that brings us to the great antithe­sis between the Spirit and the flesh that Paul expounds in Gala­tians 5. Let’s empha­size once again that Paul is writ­ing to the church. He is not writ­ing a trea­tise solely on jus­ti­fi­ca­tion by faith. He reminds the Gala­tians, as we noted above, “You were run­ning well!” These are believ­ers that Paul is cau­tion­ing against turn­ing from the Spirit.

[16] But I say, walk by the Spirit, and you will not grat­ify the desires of the flesh. [17] For the desires of the flesh are against the Spirit, and the desires of the Spirit are against the flesh, for these are opposed to each other, to keep you from doing the things you want to do. (Gal 5:16–17)

While the strug­gling man of Romans 7 may or may not be a rep­re­sen­ta­tive of the unre­gen­er­ate man fac­ing despair in try­ing to obey the law, the man addressed by Paul is one who fights the Chris­t­ian fight, the war between the flesh and the Spirit.

[18] But if you are led by the Spirit, you are not under the law. [19] Now the works of the flesh are evi­dent: sex­ual immoral­ity, impu­rity, sen­su­al­ity, [20] idolatry, sor­cery, enmity, strife, jeal­ousy, fits of anger, rival­ries, dis­sen­sions, divi­sions, [21] envy, drunk­en­ness, orgies, and things like these. I warn you, as I warned you before, that those who do such things will not inherit the king­dom of God. (Gal 5:18–21)

There is a con­nec­tion between liv­ing under the influ­ence of the law and liv­ing in the flesh. Paul has already explained to us that the law pro­motes sin in man’s flesh, and Schreiner explains Paul’s argument:
Those who “are led by the Spirit … are not under the law.” (Gal 5:18). Those who yield to the Spirit are free from the law. For Paul, being under law is the equiv­a­lent to being under the power of sin (cf. Rom. 6:14–15). His point is not that those who live in the Spirit are free from all moral norms or moral con­straints, as if those who live in the Spirit enjoy unbri­dled free­dom. Instead, those who yield to the Spirit con­quer sin and live in love. Those who are still sub­ject to the law end up pro­duc­ing the works of the flesh (Gal 5:19–21). Those who are led by and walk by the Spirit pro­duce the fruit of the Spirit (Gal. 5:22–23).[1] And what is the fruit of the Spirit? The fruit of the Spirit is not cre­ated by inspect­ing fruit. The per­pet­u­ally pen­i­tent believer (see Com­pleted by the Spirit Part 4) who “repeat­edly con­demns him­self, deplores his wretched­ness and despairs over his lack of sanc­ti­fi­ca­tion” is work­ing against the Spirit and try­ing to fix him­self in the flesh. It is the one who relies on the Spirit who obtains the joy that Paul describes; not the one in bondage to self-condemnation:

[22] But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kind­ness, good­ness, faith­ful­ness, [23] gentleness, self-control; against such things there is no law. [24] And those who belong to Christ Jesus have cru­ci­fied the flesh with its pas­sions and desires.
[25] If we live by the Spirit, let us also walk by the Spirit. (Gal 5:22–25)

That walk by the Spirit finds its pro­to­type in Jesus Him­self declares Sin­clair Fer­gu­son, who writes:
The fact that Jesus was the Man of the Spirit is, there­fore, not merely a the­o­log­i­cal cat­e­go­riza­tion; it was flesh-and-blood real­ity. What was pro­duced in him was fully real­ized human holi­ness. He was the incar­na­tion of the blessed life of the covenant and of the kingdom-beatitudes which are its fruit.[2] Meyer makes a con­nec­tion between the call in Romans 7 to “serve in the new way of the Spirit and not in the old way of the writ­ten code,” and the fruit of the Spirit:
Bear­ing fruit for God means serv­ing in the new­ness of the Spirit. That is, the Spirit gives birth to new­ness and fuels “new life” fur­ther. … The com­par­i­son between “fruit” and “new­ness” is enlight­en­ing for the whole dis­cus­sion. Fruit grows on a tree because of the root sys­tem that causes its growth. The root sys­tem accounts for the ori­gin of the fruit (i.e., gives birth to the fruit) and acts as the cat­a­lyst that causes fur­ther growth (i.e., pro­vid­ing the water and nutri­ents that are nec­es­sary for growth). In the same way, the Spirit accounts for the ori­gin of new life (Spirit cre­ates new life) and acts as the cat­a­lyst for future life (Spirit pro­duces new life). … “In new­ness of the Spirit and not in old­ness of the let­ter” of Rom 7:6 is com­pa­ra­ble to the phrase “min­is­ters of a new covenant, not of the let­ter but of the Spirit” in 2 Cor 3:6.[3] The Holy Spirit work­ing in the God-Man Jesus Christ pro­duced the pro­to­type for our glo­ri­fied selves. That which we will one day be in glory has been given to us now in the Spirit within us.
We strive to be that which we already are by walk­ing in the Spirit until the time when Christ “will trans­form our lowly body to be like his glo­ri­ous body” (Phil 3:21).
We do not do it by becom­ing slaves to sin, we do not do it by becom­ing adul­ter­ers now that the King has come for His betrothed, and we do not do it through anguished, externally-driven, dis­mal self-righteousness pro­duced by the dan­ger­ous doc­trine of the third use of the law.
Next: Com­pleted by the Spirit Part 16: Exhorted in our Union With Christ
[1] Thomas R. Schreiner, New Tes­ta­ment The­ol­ogy: Mag­ni­fy­ing God in Christ (Grand Rapids: Baker Aca­d­e­mic, 2008), 484.
[2] Sin­clair B. Fer­gu­son, The Holy Spirit (Down­ers Grove, IL: 1996), 52.
[3] Jason C. Meyer, The End of the Law: Mosaic Covenant in Pauline The­ol­ogy(Nashville: B&H Pub­lish­ing Group, 2009), 47–8.

On God We Have Set Our Hope – 2 Corinthians 1:8-11

Series: 2 Corinthians

David Frampton
Dave Frampton
Do you know the story of Elijah? He suddenly appears in Israel’s story and announces that there will not be dew or rain, except at his word. Then God promptly sends him into hiding by a brook and feeds him by ravens. Ah, what a life! To experience God’s power in action and to be provided with bread and meat by the “Raven Catering Company”. But then one day, the brook dries up, because Elijah prayed that there would be no rain. So the Lord sends him out of Israelite territory to a Gentile widow, who only has enough oil and flour for one more meal. Yet in God’s providence, he sends a daily supply of oil and flour. It might sound exciting, until you realize that all he had to eat was pancakes—with no syrup. Is this “your best life now”?
Fast-forward in the story of God’s glory to Paul the apostle, suffering to the point of death for Jesus’ sake. Paul’s life is one real calamity after another. He is flogged, whipped, jailed, and shipwrecked again and again. Is this “your best life now”?
It is easy to multiply such examples from the Bible. And I want all of us to think about what we really assume that the Lord “should” be giving us in this life. Or better, we ought to think about how we should be living. Do we have such confidence in God that we are ready to live our lives for his honor and glory and praise?
I. The intensity of Paul’s troubles (1:8-9a)– We should understand that Paul is not telling them about his troubles at this point, since he doesn’t give any information about what caused him such despair. So it is useless to conjecture what exactly happened to him. If you must have some idea, read his journal of his troubles (11:21-29). We only know that they happened in the Roman province of Asia, and that they were very serious. They probably knew by other communication. Instead, he wants to stress the intensity of his troubles.
A. Paul shares his troubles out of a concern for their benefit.

1. He uses a standard phrase of his when he wants other believers to grasp something of importance. Literally, it is “we don’t want you to be ignorant.”

2. He addresses them as “brothers and sisters”. Paul does not use this form of address much in this letter, since he is being more directive. But we should not forget that he loved them as brothers and sisters in Christ and expected them to love him in the same way.

B. Paul was looking death in the face, and it disturbed him deeply. He understood the preciousness of life, and he felt hopeless before the king of terrors.

1. Whatever his troubles were, he did not feel that he would be able to endure them. Having the great spiritual gift of being an apostle of Christ did not delude him into thinking that he was in control of his life. He thought he was going to lose his life. Clearly, he wants them to know that being an apostle did not guarantee worldly success and prosperity.

2. This great trouble shook him to the core of his being (his heart). When we realize our own mortality, it shakes us up. Paul says that he received “an official report” or “decision” that he was going to die. It is pointless to ask from whom he received this “official report”, since he is talking about how he felt in his heart. What matters is that he felt like his time was up. He felt “great pressure, far beyond our ability to endure”.

Apply: What we must grasp is that this was all according to the sovereign will of God. God’s plan was not that everything brought Paul personal happiness, success, and pleasure. Though he had the highest spiritual gift of being an apostle, he had to suffer in God’s will.
II. The purpose of Paul’s troubles (1:9b-10a) – Since God is holy, wise, and good, the troubles of his people are not random or capricious events. The Lord our God does what is best for his honor and our good.
A. To develop a greater trust in God

1. Paul clearly was a man of much faith. However, he still needed to grow in trusting God. The Lord led him through such a terrible trial to learn that he needed to rely on God rather than on himself. We all need to go through such experiences. No one is a perfectly trusting Christian. We tend to overestimate ourselves. Severe trials make clear our spiritual condition, regardless of our function in the body of Christ. When we suffer, we must keep this reason in view. God has a purpose in our sufferings.

2. Paul learned more about God as the resurrection life giver. Yes, he knew that Jesus Christ had been raised from the dead. He had seen our resurrected Lord! But when he felt in his heart like he was going to die, he grew in his knowledge of God. The living God is able to give life to dead people. Long before, Abraham had learned to reason according to this attribute of God (Heb 11:17-19). Paul was able to face his severe affliction. “I am going to die. I feel hopeless—but God! But God raises the dead! That’s right! God raises the dead. I can go forward with confidence.”

Point: God expects us to live in conformity with the revelation he has made of himself in the Holy Scriptures. What do you know of God, his attributes, and his works? Have these truths become part of the way you live? Examine yourself on this point. How is your fear or anger or depression or frustration or loneliness consistent with what you know about the living God?
B. To rekindle hope (confident expectation) in God

1. You and I will probably never understand what Paul suffered for Christ’s sake. He had been through much physical suffering and spiritual anguish for the Lord. We get upset if there’s ice on the driveway or we have to put new brakes on our car. It has been said that American Christianity is 3,000 miles wide and one inch deep. It is very hard to disagree with that evaluation, especially when we have plenty of food, many changes of clothing, and beautiful homes to live, while our brothers and sisters in Christ are suffering persecution and enduring hunger and poverty for the sake of the Name. But through this experience, Paul was able to grasp anew that God had rescued him from death. “Wow! I thought I was dead. Wow! I’m alive, because God rescued me!”

2. This led him to realize that God would rescue him again. Past experiences of God’s grace led him to confidently anticipate future grace. “Wow! Since God has worked for my good in the past, I can expect him to do it again! Double wow!”

Apply: We might have a lot of possessions, but do you think we might lack experiences of God’s rescues, because we have not been relying on God? Are we living to be safe and pain-free? Or are we willing to take risks to depend upon God to rescue us? Mark 8:35
III. The prayers about Paul’s troubles (1:10b-11) – Paul did not write these words in order to have them join a pity party for “poor old Paul”. He has two other matters in mind.
A. He wants them to be partners in prayer. In can be hard for our minds to grasp all that is involved here. The truths of God’s sovereignty and human responsibility meet.

1. Paul has confidence in God. He expects God to continue to deliver him. The Lord’s power gives him a bright outlook on the future.

2. At the same time, God has chosen to work through the prayers of his people. Prayer is significant. Yet many churches and Christians have given up on prayer. But Paul was not one of those. He looked for God to rescue him through the prayers of God’s people. And so Paul seeks to have the Corinthians join him as prayer partners.

B. He wants many people to worship God.

1. Giving thanks to God our Maker and Preserver is one of humanity’s greatest obligations (Rm 1:18-25). When the heart of someone starts to turn away from God, one of the first things to go is thankfulness. It is no small matter to thank God for one’s health, food, clothing, shelter, and the numerous blessings we receive daily. Everyday we should express our appreciation of and enjoyment in what the Lord is doing for us.

2. Since Paul is confident that God will rescue him through their prayers, he sees this as an opportunity for the Lord to receive more glory and honor and praise.

Conclusion: So what is required to set you hope on God?
1. You must believe and rely on the true and living God. You must trust that he is able to deliver you.
2. You must repent about what you want out of this life. Is the Lord Jesus Christ your treasure? Or do you value things and a lack of pains and problems far more than you want Christ? What is really going on in your heart—in the core of your being?

2 Corinthians 1:3-7 – God’s Perspective on Suffering

Series: 2 Corinthians

   As of last week we have begun a study in Paul’s second letter to the Corinthians, and we encourage you to invite others to share this time with us. As we stated last week, Paul has five main objectives in writing this letter.

a. To defend himself from the charge of unreliability made by some opponents.
b. To encourage the Corinthians to restore someone who had been disciplined.
c. To clarify the nature of his apostolic ministry.
d. To encourage the Corinthians to complete their collection for the suffering believers in Jerusalem.
e. To teach them the true nature of the Christian way of life.

David Frampton
Dave Frampton
In this section, the apostle starts to work on the first, third, and fifth of these purposes. But the way that he does this is very instructive. Paul has a “big picture” view of life and what happens in our lives. Everything is part of a comprehensive whole, which is very much different from our contemporary compartmentalized and disjointed views.
One of the major problems of the Corinthians believers that he wrote to is an incorrect Biblical theology that affected their way of life. They failed to comprehend what God accomplished in Christ Jesus and just how that formed the basis of their way of life. At some points they failed to grasp exactly what happened through the events of the gospel and the start of the new covenant, and so they were tempted by false teachers to think the old was better. At other points they thought that being in Christ somehow lifted those in Christ above troubles and suffering—and so they looked down on Paul in his sufferings. Their view contains an “over-realized eschatology”. For this reason Paul needs to teach them God’s perspective on suffering. He does not say everything that the Holy Spirit says in the Bible on this topic. But what he says will help them understand God’s ways more correctly.
I. God’s point of view begins with Christ-focused worship of God (1:3-5). 
Comment: Usually Paul begins with thanksgiving to God for those to whom he writes. But here he does not. The reason for beginning with praise to God is not due to his troubled relationship with them, because Ephesians and 1 Peter begin the same way. Instead, praise for what God had done for him is much on Paul’s mind at this point, and provides an opportunity to teach.
A. The way Paul states his praise shows his Christ-focused outlook.

1. Here is how God was praised from an old covenant perspective (cf. Gen 14:20). “Blessed art thou, O Lord our God and God of our fathers, God of Abraham, God of Isaac, and God of Jacob, great, mighty, and fearful God, most high, who bestowest abundant grace and createst all things and rememberest the promises of grace to the fathers and bringest a Redeemer to their children’s children for thy name’s sake out of love. O King who bringest help and salvation and who art a shield. Blessed art thou, Lord, Shield of Abraham” (quoted by Barnett).

2. Now that Christ has come and has established his new and better covenant, the teaching of Christ changes how we view God (1:3a). God is first of all the God of Christ, since he is the Anointed Mediator and Redeemer, and God is his Father, since he is the Son of God. So then, since we are in Christ, we can call the Almighty Creator our God and Father. Also, God is for us the Father of compassion or mercies (cf. Ex 34:6; 25:6). God is moved with pity at the troubles of his people. The Father is also the God of all comfort (Ps 51:2; 103:4; 119:76-77). In our therapeutic culture we can misread “comfort” as consolation or emotional relief, satisfaction, and freedom from pain and anxiety. Instead, the correct idea is encouragement that provides strength to face the trials of life.

B. The praise is for the way that comfort comes to believers. At this point Paul states a worldview changing concept (1:5) that corrects their “over-realized eschatology”. They assumed that being in Christ guaranteed blessing in this world and freedom from suffering. That idea is very wrong, as Paul now states.

1. The sufferings of Christ flow over into our lives. Ouch! Our Lord Jesus Christ really suffered, so what does he mean? Clearly, it is not talking about his redemptive sufferings, because these were finished on the cross (cf. Rm 6:10; Hebrews). Instead, this refers to our Lord’s union with his people. He is the head of the body, and all suffering affects the whole body. As we stand up as witnesses for Christ and the good news, we will face opposition, and perhaps persecution, suffering, and death. To follow Christ is the way of the cross (Mk 8:34). Paul had already written that it was the lot of the apostles to suffer (1 Cor 4:8-10). But the Corinthians didn’t get it. They thought that if you served Christ, everyone would see God’s blessing—prosperity, prestige, power, and popularity. He says, “No, service for Christ is marked by suffering.”

2. But the Father also comforts his suffering people through Christ. The Lord Jesus Christ is everything in the new covenant. And this comfort through Christ overflows! Throughout the rest of this letter, Paul will talk about his experiences of this overflowing comfort, so that they can grasp how they share with him in it. But think of three examples (1:8-11; 6:4-10; 12:7-10).

Point: Paul praises God the Father for the overflowing comfort he received as he suffered for Christ’s sake. They looked down on him because of his sufferings. He rejoiced because of God’s overflowing comfort. They—and we—need this change in our world and life view.
II. God’s point of view develops the interdependence of those who share in Christ (1:4, 6).
A. God works in our sufferings for Christ and the good news (1:6).

1. God the Father has people like Paul suffer trouble. But God does this for the comfort and salvation of others. Do not be mistaken. The good news of salvation came to you through someone’s hardships or troubles or suffering or persecution for Christ’s sake.

2. God the Father has people like Paul experience comfort from God, so that they might tell about the comfort they received. This in turn produces endurance in suffering in other of God’s people.

Point: “Suffering, then, is a training ground for service in the body of Christ” (Belleville).
B. God wants to produce wider benefits with the comfort that he gives us (1:4).

1. God gives his people comfort in all our troubles. Notice that it is not rescue from trouble but encouragement “in all our troubles”.

2. Then we can comfort others in the same way that God comforted us. Our comfort is not for self-satisfaction. It is for the benefit of others in the church. We must move far away from the western obsession with self that is destructive of our purpose to live for God’s glory as adult sons and daughters of God.

III. God’s point of view produces confidence (1:7). 
A. The outlook Paul had for the Corinthian believers.

1. He confidently expected their glory in Christ. Paul will later explain the details of their hope in Christ (cf. 4:7-18). It is impossible to live the Christian life apart from a mind focused on the blessings that will be ours when we are with the Lord in glory. Jesus told us where to store up our treasures—in heaven (Mt 6:19-21).

2. But for now he says that this hope or confident expectation is firm or guaranteed. The word used here is a commercial term for a legally guaranteed security.

B. The reason for Paul’s confidence

1. He knew that they shared in his sufferings. Their failures in understanding did not move Paul from correct ideas. He knew the power of God’s grace that was working in them. God was working for their good through what Paul suffered. For example, God was using his experience of suffering to wean them from this over-realized eschatology that thought all Christians prosper in this world.

Point: We need to let ourselves be affected by what our brothers and sisters in Christ are suffering for Christ’s sake in other places.

2. So this meant that they also share in his comfort. Again, the union of every believer in Christ guarantees this shared experience. This letter is an example of the comfort they, and we, are able to share from Paul’s sufferings.

Apply: The unity of believers in all that is ours in Christ is a reality that we must not neglect or make light of. But practically, this requires us to tear down high walls of individualism that have long been erected. Paul writes that they might tear down such walls. Back in the 1980s, President Reagan said to the leader of the Soviet Union about the Berlin Wall, “Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!” So we must tear down the walls that separate Christians from one another, that we might know more of the sufferings and encouragement of Christ. Will you open up your hearts to one another?