The Lord’s Prayer – do we pray it or no?

[You are encouraged to read the original post at Dr Shogren’s blog.]


Exploring Prayer

There are two main approaches to the Lord’s Prayer (LP).

  • The Lord’s Prayer was meant to be prayed verbatim.
  • The Lord’s Prayer was not meant to be prayed verbatim, but is a model prayer.

Most of the church for 2000 years has opted for the first, while also affirming that it is a valid application to use it as a pattern; some evangelicals have accepted only the second.

Let’s explore the options:

  1. How not to pray
  2. The intent of the Lord’s Prayer
  3. The use of the Lord’s Prayer in the Early Church

1. How not to pray, according to Matthew 6

praying-like-a-paganThe Lord compares his teaching with two very different alternatives. First, he tells his disciples not to pray as “hypocrites” – in this case, he describes Jewish men who wish to be seen by other people (Matt 6:5-6). The problem was not that they stood to pray in the synagogue or Temple (Luke 18:9); that was common practice. Nor that they prayed in public; that too was the norm. The problem was their motivation, to be seen praying with extravagant piety. If they wanted to give the litmus test to their own motivations, they might try praying in private and see if they are still so earnest.

The second warning has to do with “pagans.” They pray with “many words” and with “babbling.” This clause is poorly interpreted by some. Jesus does not say, “Don’t pray like they do in the synagogue, because they use set prayers.” Rather he points to pagans who use magical formulas to gain the attention of their gods, as shown in the picture. In paganism, the more the better, and the practitioner would crank out prayer after prayer of nonsense sentences.

Of course, someone could use the LP hypocritically or as a magical formula. But it would be incongruous for Jesus to have warned against “empty repetition of words” and then given a prayer for them to pray that was “empty” by definition.

2. The Intent of the Lord’s Prayer

Jesus seems to have taught the LP on at least two occasions – Matt 6:9-13 is reflected in a another context and a shorter version in Luke 11:2-4.

In Matt 6:9 he says “Therefore, you should pray in this manner,or as follows”; the word “you” is emphasized, to contrast with the rambling pagans in 6:7-8. Matthew uses the same language that often introduces verbatim quotes (see Matt 2:5, Acts 7:6, 13:34, 47 and other passages). In Luke 11:2 he says even more directly, “When you pray, say” the following. This answered the disciples’ question, “Lord, teach us to pray, as John taught his disciples.” They would have understood that such prayers were “formal,” like those of the synagogue, that is, meant to be memorized and prayed verbatim.

Like Jesus, the disciples knew plenty of set prayers, most of them in Hebrew. They also had memorized many or all of the Psalms. Like all pious Jews, they would have recited the Shema creed everying morning and evening (it starts with “Shema [Hear] Israel” in Deut 6:4-9 and includes two other passages; the Mishnah tradition of the rabbis has long sections on how and when to pray in public). Thus, a lack of prayers was not a problem. But they wanted to partake in prayer as Jesus did, who would disappear for long periods of time with his Father.

The LP is very close to an ancient prayer called the Kaddish (or Qaddish), which probably was known in Jesus’ day and came to be a popular benediction in the synagogue. Here is one brief version:

Magnified and sanctified be his great name in the world that he has created according to his will. May he establish his Kingdom in your lifetime and in your days and in your lifetime of all the house of Israel, even speedily and at a near time.

One commentator goes so far as to say:

 It is notable that the prayer that Jesus gives is not particularly “Christian.” It is rather a beautifully simple expression of Jewish prayer…[with a] confidence in God’s desire to answer the prayers of his children, as a loving human father desires to respond to the requests of his children. [1]

When the disciples asked for a prayer, they were saying, “Show us how to pray so that we confess that God has called us to his kingdom, resulting in us following you to God.” And so this very Jewish prayer emphasizes many of those themes that Jesus had taught – glorify God, the coming kingdom, daily needs, forgiveness, testing and persecution.[2]

Nevertheless, if the LP were a model prayer, a complete, integrated outline or guide for the Christian devotional life, then it is missing many elements. Where is the petition for God to send laborers into the harvest? Praying for the sick? Praying for the lost? Praying for Christian leaders? Praying for the gift of the Spirit (Luke 11:13)? For wisdom (James 1:5)? And goodness, what about giving thanks? Where is Jesus in this prayer, or the cross? How about Judgment Day?

 3. The Use of the Lord’s Prayer in the Early Church

There is plenty of evidence that the early church prayed the LP in their private devotions and in their meetings. Of course, their practice might have been wrong-headed, but it helps to know that they immediately picked up Jesus’ teaching in this way.

To begin with, the LP called upon believers to address God as Father. Jesus probably taught the prayer in Aramaic, and within a very short time even gentile disciples learned to call God by a foreign Jewish word, Abba, Father (Gal 4:6; Rom 8:15).

Even earlier, from the late 1st and early 2nd centuries AD,Didache (DID-ah-kay) 8.2-3 said that new believers should be taught the Lord’s prayer. The author uses a form of the LP that is very close to the one in Matthew 6, and states that a believer should pray it three times a day.

Later on in history, new converts were taught the LP only after a long period of instruction; only on the day of their baptism were they allowed to recite the Lord’s Prayer.[3]

Interesting enough, one can see the development of the LP in the worship of the church by reading dusty old manuscripts. In your Bible there is probably a footnote at Matt 6:13 that says that some later manuscripts added the conclusion we are all familiar with: “For yours is the kingdom and the power and the glory, forever. Amen.” Matthew’s version originally ended with “And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil.” Some decades later, the Didache has a shorter blessing, “for yours is the power and the glory forever.” In the 4th and 5th centuries the manuscripts have some sort of blessing, and then in the 4th some have “because yours is the kingdom of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, forever and ever, Amen.” This technical information shows that as the church regularly used the LP, it came to add an increasingly longer blessing. When the scribes copied Matthew, they added the blessing in the form they knew. All this to show that the LP as a fixed prayer was regularly used from early in the church.

One blogger objects to using the LP in worship or devotions because, “in prayer, God is far more interested in our communicating with Him and speaking from our hearts than He is in the specific words we use.” Of course we must daily pray in an impromptu fashion – when Jesus prayed all night at Gethsemane, he certainly didn’t just repeat any set prayer over and over. And of course God is more interested in the heart. But if he is not interested in words, then why do we have 150 psalms for our use in worship? Why indeed did the disciples pass along to the early church that it was proper to pray it as such? The author’s attachment to extemporaneous or “from-the heart-and-off-the-cuff” strikes me as contrary to Jesus’ intent in this passage.


Jesus intended to give us a set prayer, to be prayed verbatim, as one part of normal devotional and church worship, which might also include psalms, set texts, and spontaneous prayer. This is how we take Luke 11:2, “When you pray, say the Lord’s Prayer.”

In another post, I hope to speak about mental wandering during prayer, and how it relates to formal and informal prayers.


[1] Nolland, Luke, WBC, 2:619.

[2] One preacher on Youtube interprets the Matthew version of the LP in a way that I had heard about only second-hand, that it was meant to be prayed only by Jews during the Great Tribulation. Needless to say, there is nothing in the Matthean version that points us in that direction; and the Lukan version stands directly opposed to that interpretation of the LP.

[3] Apostolic Constitutions 7.44 – “After [being baptized] let him stand up, and pray that prayer which the Lord taught us. But, of necessity, he who is risen again ought to stand up and pray, because he that is raised up stands upright. Let him, therefore, who has been dead with Christ, and is raised up with Him, stand up.”

Visit Dr Shogren’s blog to comment on his article.

[author] [author_image timthumb=’on’][/author_image] [author_info]Copyright Gary Shogren.
Gary has a PhD in New Testament Exegesis. He serves as Professor at Seminario ESEPA, San Jose, Costa Rica[/author_info] [/author]
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And the Holy Spirit


The theologians of Constantinople —wary of the Spirit
—minimized the Spirit’s role in the church


The Council of Nicaea in 325 worked hard to summarize a sound understanding of the Triune God in the face of Arian error. They explained how Jesus, the Son, exists in eternal relationship with the Father. In a final document they added this truncated final object of proper faith—“And in the Holy Spirit.” The Father-Son reality was their main focus; yet the lack of substance in their mention of the Spirit reflected an uncertainty about his being and work.

The Council of Constantinople in 381 addressed the Holy Spirit more fully by describing Him as “the Lord, the giver of Life, who proceeds from the Father, who with the Father and the Son is worshipped and glorified, and who spoke through the prophets.” A much better summary.

My own theological heritage was more like the theologians of Nicaea than the theologians of Constantinople—wary of the Spirit—as they minimized the Spirit’s role in the church. I suspect it reveals an enduring reaction to the overstated focus on the Spirit found in some Christian traditions. The errors of past—as in the teachings of Joachim of Fiore, or the prophets of Zwickau, or the radicals of Munster, or the Familists of England—still haunt the church. Some are still promoting these excesses. But folly must not cause us to retreat from what the Bible tells us of the Spirit’s ministry.

Let me raise three issues for conversation.

First, all Christians affirm the Spirit’s place in the Trinity as a necessary feature of faith.

This goes beyond the mere title offered at Nicaea. We must adopt, at least, the biblical premise of Constantinople: the Spirit is our Lord and he brings God’s life to believers. This is the truth Jesus offered Nicodemus in John 3. Without the Spirit of God there is no eternal life—a person is dead in sin until the Spirit comes and brings God’s life.

One can draw from this that in the day Adam sinned he died as God had promised—“in the day you eat [the forbidden fruit] you shall surely die” versus Satan’s claim, “You will not surely die.” Here Satan deceived Eve, and Adam then joined her in eating and dying. The Spirit—the source of Adam’s life—was grieved by this rejection and departed from Adam.

When Adam died so did all of his extended offspring: since the fall no human has ever been physically birthed with the Spirit in his or her soul. His role as the means of spiritual life ended in Eden and now must be reengaged. As Jesus put it to Nicodemus, “that which is born of the flesh is [merely] flesh, and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit.”

So Christ, by the Spirit, now stands outside human souls—unloved and uninvited but still speaking his own words of love. What Adam once enjoyed—God’s love, joy, peace, and more—is still available, shared in quiet whispers. But our human appetite to be independent—to “be like God”—carries us in an opposite direction.

Second, the Spirit communicates God’s heart so that he is effective in drawing some, but not all, back into the life Adam despised. This is our new spiritual life.

John Calvin captures this:

“He [God] wills to work in us. This means nothing else than that the Lord by his Spirit directs, bends, and governs, our heart and reigns in it as in his own possession. Indeed, he does not promise through Ezekiel that he will give a new Spirit to his elect only in order that they may be able to walk according to his precepts, but also that they may actually so walk.” [Institutes, 2.3.10]

The richness of the Spirit’s activity in believers is what makes the book of Acts so lively and also so promising: lively in its portrayal of the Spirit’s past initiatives, and promising in what the range of the Spirit’s role can be among us today. What we must remember is that the Spirit’s ministry is always self-defined by what Jesus shared – “he [the Spirit] will bear witness about me.”

The third reality of the Spirit’s ministry is that he changes us from the “inside-out”.

The spiritual life relies on the Spirit and not on our old and fallen habits of trying to “be like God”. Paul all but shouts this in 2 Corinthians 3 and 4 when he wrote that the Spirit moves us “from glory to glory”—into an ever-increasing likeness to Christ who is the Image of God. He uses the gospel to win our hearts with God’s love and then to reshape our hearts into an alignment with God’s heart.

How does he do this? By pouring out God’s love in our hearts. It’s like a breeze coming into a forest that was once still and dormant in death: with his arrival the wind of the Spirit brings a wonderful animation that all can see and Christians will enjoy.

Thoughts? You are invited to comment on Ron’s articles at Cor Deo.
~ Ron
Dr. Ron Frost
Ron served on faculty for more than 20 years at Multnomah Bible College and Biblical Seminary. At the seminary, from 1995-2007, he was professor of historical theology and ethics. He earned his PhD at King’s College of the University of London. His research featured Richard Sibbes (1577-1635). He now teaches internationally while serving as a pastoral care consultant to missionaries with Barnabas International. Ron authored Discover the Power of the Bible and writes on [See “Resources”].
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